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Gobierno de Malí - Historia

Gobierno de Malí - Historia


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Malí

El presidente es jefe de estado y comandante en jefe de las fuerzas armadas. Los presidentes son elegidos por mandatos de 5 años, con un límite de dos mandatos. El presidente nombra al primer ministro como jefe de gobierno.

La Asamblea Nacional es el único brazo legislativo del gobierno. Actualmente consta de 116 miembros, pero se han asignado 13 escaños adicionales a los malienses en el extranjero y 4 a los tuaregs malienses desplazados por la rebelión.

GOBIERNO ACTUAL
Pres.Amadou Toumani TOURE
Prime Min.Modibo SIDIBE
Min. de agriculturaAgatheane Ag ALASSANE
Min. de Comunicaciones y TecnologíaDiarra Mariam Flantie DIALLO
Min. de CulturaMohamed El MOCTAR
Min. de Defensa y VeteranosNatie PLEA
Min. de Economía y FinanzasSanoussi TOURE
Min. de Empleo y Formación ProfesionalIbrahima N'DIAYE
Min. de energía y recursos hídricosAhmed SOW
Min. de Medio Ambiente y SaneamientoTiemoko SANGARE
Min. de Equipo y TransporteAhmed Diane SEMEGA
Min. de Relaciones ExterioresMoctar OUANE
Min. de saludOumar Ibrahima TOURE
Min. de Vivienda y UrbanismoGakou Salimata FOFONA
Min. de Industria, Inversión y ComercioAhmadou Abdoulaye DIALLO
Min. de Seguridad Interior y Protección CivilSadio GASSAMA, Columna.
Min. de Justicia y Guardián de los SellosMaharafa TRAORE
Min. de Trabajo, Reformas del Estado y Relaciones con las InstitucionesAbdoul Wahab BERTHE
Min. de Ganadería y PescaDiallo Madeleine BA
Min. de los malienses en el extranjero y la integración africanaBadra Alou MACALOU
Min. de minasAbubakar TRAORE
Min. de Planificación y Desarrollo NacionalMarimantia DIARRA
Min. de Educación Primaria, Alfabetización e Idiomas NacionalesSalikou SANOGO
Min. de Promoción de Inversiones y Medianas y Pequeñas EmpresasOusmane THIAM
Min. de Promoción de Asuntos de la Mujer, el Niño y la FamiliaMaiga Sina DAMBA
Min. de Educación Secundaria y Superior e Investigación CientíficaSiby Ginette BELLEGARDE
Min. de Desarrollo Social, Solidaridad y AncianosSekou DIAKITE
Min. de Administración Territorial. Y comunidades localesKafougouna KONE, Gen.
Min. de Turismo, Artes y OficiosD'Diaye BA
Min. de Juventud y DeportesHamane NIANG
Embajador en los Estados UnidosAbdoulaye DIOP
Representante Permanente ante la ONU, Nueva YorkOumar DAOU


Gobierno de Malí - Historia

La falta de comprensión histórica y la desconfianza mutua entre Bamako y su territorio del norte han jugado un papel importante en la inestabilidad de Malí durante décadas. Al ignorar las aspiraciones del norte de desarrollo económico (especialmente infraestructura social y económica) o representación política (falta de escaños gubernamentales, por ejemplo), las autoridades malienses han allanado el camino para la contienda violenta y acciones separatistas. El apoyo popular entre las poblaciones tuareg y árabes a algunos movimientos rebeldes y grupos armados, y la autoridad que los líderes rebeldes han tenido sobre algunas poblaciones del norte, son buenos ejemplos de las desigualdades que colectivamente experimenta la población del norte.

Las rebeliones posteriores en Malí, a su vez, han agravado la desconfianza de la comunidad desde hace mucho tiempo. Las secuelas de las rebeliones y las negociaciones que llevaron a "acuerdos de paz" también fomentaron las tensiones entre las comunidades del norte, ya que algunos grupos utilizaron esas situaciones para promover sus propios intereses.

Las divisiones étnicas y la anarquía, debido a la retirada del estado de Malí, que caracterizaron las secuelas de las rebeliones, presentaron una ventana de oportunidad para que los grupos terroristas se establecieran en el norte. Prosperando con el tráfico ilícito y mezclándose con las poblaciones locales, estos grupos lograron ganar influencia gradualmente antes de la crisis de 2012.

Este capítulo explica los problemas de seguridad creados por las tensiones dentro de la sociedad maliense y describe cómo el gobierno central trató de abordarlos.


El Imperio de Mali (1230-1600)

El Imperio de Malí fue uno de los imperios más grandes de la historia de África Occidental y, en su apogeo, se extendió desde la costa atlántica hasta las partes centrales del desierto del Sahara [i]. El Imperio fue fundado en 1235 EC por el legendario Rey Sundiata [ii] y duró hasta principios del siglo XVII EC [iii]. El gobernante más famoso del Imperio se llamaba Mansa Musa, y los cronistas de la época escribieron que cuando viajaba a La Meca en peregrinación distribuía tanto oro que provocó una gran inflación que duró una década [iv].

El Imperio Malí surgió con la consolidación de varios pequeños Reinos Malinké en Ghana alrededor de las áreas del alto río Níger [v]. La mayor parte de lo que se sabe sobre la historia temprana del Imperio de Malí fue recopilado por eruditos árabes en los años 1300 y 1400 [vi]. Un rey llamado Sumanguru Kanté gobernaba el Reino de Susu, que había conquistado al pueblo Malinké a principios del siglo XIII [vii]. El rey conocido como Sundiata (también escrito Sunjata) organizó la resistencia de Malinké contra el Reino de Susu [viii], y muchos historiadores, como Conrad David e Innes Gordon, creen que Sundiata fundó Mali cuando derrotó a Sumanguru Kanté en 1235 [ ix] [x].

El desarrollo del imperio comenzó en su ciudad capital de Niani, que también fue casualmente el lugar de nacimiento del fundador del imperio y el rey Sundiata [xi]. Sundiata construyó un vasto imperio que se extendía desde la costa atlántica al sur del río Senegal hasta Goa, al este de la curva del Níger Medio.

Economía y sociedad en el Imperio de Mali

El Imperio de Malí estaba formado por áreas periféricas y pequeños reinos. Todos estos reinos juraron lealtad a Malí ofreciendo tributos anuales en forma de arroz, mijo, lanzas y flechas [xii]. Malí prosperó gracias a los impuestos recaudados a sus ciudadanos, y todos los bienes que entraban y salían del Imperio estaban sujetos a fuertes impuestos, mientras que todas las pepitas de oro pertenecían al rey. Sin embargo, se podía comerciar con polvo de oro y, en determinadas ocasiones, se utilizaba como moneda el polvo de oro junto con sal y tela de algodón [xiii]. Las conchas de cauri del Océano Índico se utilizaron más tarde como moneda en el comercio interno del Sáhara Occidental [xiv].

Malí, y especialmente la ciudad de Tombuctú, era famosa por ser un centro de aprendizaje y una arquitectura espectacular [xv], como Sankara Madrassa, un gran centro de aprendizaje, y la Universidad de Sankore, que continuó produciendo una gran cantidad de astrónomos, académicos e ingenieros. mucho después del fin del Imperio de Mali. Se considera que la ocupación colonial francesa contribuyó al deterioro de la calidad de la educación de la Universidad [xvi].

Si bien Malí era una monarquía gobernada por Mansa o Master, gran parte del poder estatal estaba en manos de los funcionarios de la corte [xvii]. Esto significó que el Imperio podría sobrevivir a varios períodos de inestabilidad y una serie de malos gobernantes. El Imperio de Malí también era un imperio multiétnico y multilingüe, y el Islam era la religión dominante [xviii].

Los gobernantes de Malí adoptaron el título de "Mansa" [xix]. El fundador de Malí, Sundiata, se estableció firmemente como un líder fuerte tanto en el sentido religioso como secular [xx], afirmando que tenía un vínculo directo con los espíritus de la tierra, lo que lo convirtió en el guardián de los antepasados. Su imperio se extendió desde los límites del bosque en el suroeste a través de la región de pastizales de Malinké hasta los puertos del Sahel y el sur del Sahara de Walatta y Tandmekka [xxi], y los eruditos árabes estiman que Sundiata gobernó durante unos 25 años y murió en 1255. [xxii].

A pesar de la gran extensión del Imperio de Malí, a menudo estuvo plagado de un liderazgo insuficiente [xxiii]. Sin embargo, se considera que el hijo de Sundiata, Mansa Wali [xxiv], que se convirtió en el próximo rey, fue uno de los gobernantes más poderosos de Mali [xxv]. Mansa Wali, a su vez, sería sucedido por su hermano Wati, a quien sucedió su hermano llamado Kahlifa [xxvi]. Kahlifa fue visto como un gobernante particularmente malo, y algunos cronistas describen cómo usaría arcos y flechas para matar gente para entretenerse [xxvii]. Debido a su desgobierno, Kahlifa fue depuesto y reemplazado por un nieto de Sundiata llamado Abu Bakr [xxviii]. Abu Bakr había sido adoptado por Sundiata como hijo, aunque era nieto e hijo de la hija de Sundiata, lo que habría reforzado enormemente su derecho al trono [xxix].

Los problemas de liderazgo en el Imperio de Malí continuarían después de la ascensión de Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr fue depuesto en un golpe de estado por un hombre llamado Sakura, que era esclavo [xxx] o comandante militar [xxxi]. La baja estatura de Sakura quizás implica que la familia real había perdido gran parte de su popularidad entre la gente común [xxxii]. El reinado de Sakura, sin embargo, también sería problemático después de que se convirtiera al Islam, Sakura emprendió una peregrinación a La Meca pero fue asesinada por el pueblo Danakil [xxxiii] durante su viaje de regreso mientras estaba en la ciudad de Tadjoura [xxxiv]. Se discute por qué Sakura estaba en Tadjoura, ya que no era una ruta natural a seguir cuando regresaba de La Meca a Mali, y también por qué razones fue asesinado [xxxv]. Algunos sugieren que lo mataron porque el Danakil quería robar su oro [xxxvi].

El ascenso al poder de Sakura también nos muestra que la familia gobernante y los Mansa tenían un poder limitado en el Imperio de Mali y que los oficiales de la corte ejercían un poder significativo [xxxvii] en comparación. El Imperio de Malí estaba organizado en provincias con una estructura jerárquica estricta [xxxviii] en la que cada provincia tenía un gobernador y cada ciudad tenía un alcalde o mochrif [xxxix]. Se desplegaron grandes ejércitos para detener cualquier rebelión en los reinos más pequeños y para salvaguardar las numerosas rutas comerciales [xl]. La descentralización del poder a niveles inferiores de la burocracia gubernamental a través de funcionarios judiciales, junto con una estructura jerárquica estricta, fue parte de la razón por la que el Imperio de Malí era tan estable a pesar de una serie de malos gobernantes [xli]. A pesar de las disputas dentro de la familia gobernante, la devolución del poder administrativo estatal a través de estructuras inferiores significó que el Imperio podría funcionar bastante bien. En tiempos de buenos gobernantes, el Imperio expandiría su territorio, convirtiéndolo en uno de los Imperios más grandes de la historia de África Occidental [xlii].

La famosa Mansa Musa

Fue en este contexto que el gobernante más famoso del Imperio de Mali, Mansa Musa, ascendió al trono. Los historiadores debaten si Mansa Musa era nieto de uno de los hermanos de Sundiata, lo que lo convierte en el sobrino nieto de Sundiata, o si era nieto de Abu Bakr [xliii]. Lo que se sabe es que Mansa Musa se convirtió al Islam y peregrinó a La Meca en 1324, acompañada de 60 000 individuos y grandes cantidades de oro [xliv]. Su generosidad fue supuestamente tan grande que cuando dejó La Meca ya había usado todas las piezas de oro que se había llevado y tuvo que pedir dinero prestado para el viaje de regreso [xlv].

Mansa Musa era conocido por ser un gobernante sabio y eficiente, y uno de sus mayores logros fue el encargo de algunos de los edificios más importantes de Tombuctú. En 1327 se construyó la Gran Mezquita de Tombuctú [xlvi] y Tombuctú se convertiría más tarde en un centro de aprendizaje [xlvii]. Al final del reinado de Mansa Musa, había construido y financiado la Sankara Madrassa, que posteriormente se convierte en uno de los mayores centros de aprendizaje del mundo islámico y la mayor biblioteca de África en ese momento [xlviii]. Se estima que la Sankara Madrassa ha albergado entre 250 000 y 700 000 manuscritos, lo que la convierte en la biblioteca más grande de África desde la Gran Biblioteca de Alejandría [xlix]. Algunas fuentes afirman que durante su reinado Mansa Musa conquistó 24 ciudades con sus tierras circundantes, expandiendo así el imperio en gran medida [l]. Se estima que Mansa Musa murió en 1337 y pasaría el título de Mansa a su hijo, Mansa Maghan [li].

La Gran Mezquita de Tombuctú

El declive del Imperio de Malí

El período de 1360 a 1390 fue una época de problemas para el Imperio de Mali [lii]. El Imperio sufrió bajo varios gobernantes malos con reinados breves [liii]. El trono cambió de manos entre varios miembros de la familia gobernante y en un momento fue tomado por un hombre llamado Mahmud, que no era de Mali ni formaba parte de la familia gobernante [liv]. Finalmente, Mansa Mari Djata II logró recuperar el trono de la dinastía gobernante, pero su gobierno despótico arruinó el estado [lv]. Como en años anteriores, fue un funcionario de la corte quien volvió a encarrilar al Imperio después de una serie de malos gobernantes. Mari Djarta, un "wazir" (ministro), tomó el poder y gobernó, actuando esencialmente como regente, a través del rey Mansa Musa II [lvi]. Durante el reinado de Mari Djarta (también conocido como Mari Djarta III), el Imperio de Mali restauraría parte del poder que había perdido durante los 30 años anteriores de desgobierno y guerra civil [lvii].

Mansa Musa II murió en 1387 y fue sucedido por su hermano Mansa Magha II, quien también sería el títere de poderosos funcionarios de la corte [lviii]. Después de un año, Mansa Musa II fue asesinada, terminando así la línea de reyes que descendía de Mansa Musa I [lix]. Esto desencadenó el declive del Imperio de Mali y en 1433 la ciudad fue conquistada por los nómadas tuareg [lx]. Durante los siguientes 100 años, el Imperio cedió lentamente el paso a los conquistadores Songhay del este, y para el siglo XVI se había reducido solo a sus tierras centrales de Malinké [lxi]. Durante el siglo XVII, Malí se había dividido en una serie de jefaturas independientes menores y, por lo tanto, el Imperio de Malí ya no era la superpotencia que había sido en su mejor momento [lxii].

[i] Conrad, David C. 2009. Grandes imperios del pasado. Imperios del África occidental medieval: Ghana, Mali y Songhay. Nueva York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 39. ↵

[ii] Innes, Gordon. 1974. Sunjata: Tres versiones de Mandinke. Escuela de Estudios Orientales y Africanos de la Universidad de Londres. Male Street, Londres. Página 1. ↵

[iii] Conrad, David C. 2009. Grandes imperios del pasado. Imperios del África occidental medieval: Ghana, Mali y Songhay. Nueva York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 59. ↵

[v] Conrad, David C. 2009. Grandes imperios del pasado. Imperios del África occidental medieval: Ghana, Mali y Songhay. Nueva York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 39. ↵

[vi] Levtzion, N. 1963. “Los reyes de Malí de los siglos XIII y XIV” en Journal of African History, IV, 3 (1963), págs. 34I-353. Página 341. ↵

[vii] C. 2009. Grandes imperios del pasado. Imperios del África occidental medieval: Ghana, Mali y Songhay. Nueva York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 42. ↵

[ix] Gordon. 1974. Sunjata: Tres versiones de Mandinke. Escuela de Estudios Orientales y Africanos de la Universidad de Londres. Male Street, Londres. Página 1. ↵

[x] Innes, Gordon. 1974. Sunjata: Tres versiones de Mandinke. Escuela de Estudios Orientales y Africanos de la Universidad de Londres. Male Street, Londres. Página 1. ↵

[xi] Conrad, David C. 2009. Grandes imperios del pasado. Imperios del África occidental medieval: Ghana, Mali y Songhay. Nueva York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 34. ↵

[xii] Togola, Téréba. 1996. “Ocupación de la Edad del Hierro en la región de Méma, Malí” en The African Archaeological Review, vol. 13, núm. 2 (junio de 1996), págs. 91-110. Página 95. ↵

[xiii] Conrad, David C. 2009. Grandes imperios del pasado. Imperios del África occidental medieval: Ghana, Mali y Songhay. Nueva York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 34. ↵

[xv] Shuriye, Abdi O. e Ibrahim, Dauda Sh. 2013. “La civilización de Tombuctú y su importancia en la historia islámica” en Revista Mediterránea de Ciencias Sociales Publicación MCSER, Roma-Italia Vol 4 No 11 de octubre de 2013. Página 697. ↵

[xvii] Levtzion, N. 1963. “Los reyes de Malí de los siglos XIII y XIV” en Journal of African History, IV, 3 (1963), págs. 34I-353. Página 350. ↵

[xviii] Conrad, David C. 2009. Grandes imperios del pasado. Imperios del África occidental medieval: Ghana, Mali y Songhay. Nueva York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 34. ↵

[ixx] David C. 2009. Grandes imperios del pasado. Imperios del África occidental medieval: Ghana, Mali y Songhay. Nueva York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 45. ↵

[xxv] Levtzion, N. 1963. "Los reyes de Malí de los siglos XIII y XIV" en Journal ↵

[xxxi] C. 2009. Grandes imperios del pasado. Imperios del África occidental medieval: Ghana, Mali y Songhay. Nueva York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 45. ↵

[xxxiii] Beckingham, C.F. 1953. "Boletín de la Escuela de Estudios Orientales y Africanos" en Estudios Africanos. Boletín de la Escuela de Estudios Orientales y Africanos / Volumen 15 / Número 02 / Junio ​​de 1953, págs. 391-392. ↵

[xxxiv] Levtzion, N. 1963. “Los reyes de Malí de los siglos XIII y XIV” en Journal of African History, IV, 3 (1963), págs. 34I-353. Página 345. ↵

[xxxvii] Conrad, David C. 2009. Grandes imperios del pasado. Imperios del África occidental medieval: Ghana, Mali y Songhay. Nueva York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 45. ↵

[xxxviii] Togola, Téréba. 1996. “Ocupación de la Edad del Hierro en la región de Méma, Malí” en The African Archaeological Review, vol. 13, núm. 2 (junio de 1996), págs. 91-110. Página 95. ↵

[xxxix] McDowell, Linda y Mackay, Marilyn. 2005. Guía del maestro para las sociedades de historia mundial del pasado. Portage y Prensa Principal. Winnipeg, Canadá. Página 246. ↵

[xli] Conrad, David C. 2009. Grandes imperios del pasado. Imperios del África occidental medieval: Ghana, Mali y Songhay. Nueva York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 45. ↵

[xliii] Levtzion, N. 1963. “Los reyes de Malí de los siglos XIII y XIV” en Journal of African History, IV, 3 (1963), págs. 34I-353. Página 347. ↵

[xliv] C. 2009. Grandes imperios del pasado. Imperios del África occidental medieval: Ghana, Mali y Songhay. Nueva York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 49. ↵

[xlviii] Shuriye, Abdi O. e Ibrahim, Dauda Sh. 2013. “La civilización de Tombuctú y su importancia en la historia islámica” en Revista Mediterránea de Ciencias Sociales Publicación MCSER, Roma-Italia Vol 4 No 11 de octubre de 2013. Página 697. ↵

[l] Conrad, David C. 2009. Grandes imperios del pasado. Imperios del África occidental medieval: Ghana, Mali y Songhay. Nueva York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 45. ↵

[li] Levtzion, N. 1963. “Los reyes de Malí de los siglos XIII y XIV” en Journal of African History, IV, 3 (1963), págs. 34I-353. Página 350. ↵

[lvii] Conrad, David C. 2009. Grandes imperios del pasado. Imperios del África occidental medieval: Ghana, Mali y Songhay. Nueva York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 55. ↵

[lx] Hunwick, John O. 2000. "Timbuktu" en Encyclopaedia of Islam. Volumen X (2ª ed.), Leiden: Brill, págs. 508–510. Página 508. ↵

[lxi] Conrad, David C. 2009. Grandes imperios del pasado. Imperios del África occidental medieval: Ghana, Mali y Songhay. Nueva York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 59. ↵


Contenido

Educación durante el dominio francés Editar

Durante la colonización francesa de África Occidental, la Armada francesa construyó algunas de las primeras escuelas en Malí. [17] En 1877, los franceses introdujeron las primeras escuelas públicas en Malí, conocidas colectivamente como Escuelas de rehenes, un nombre inspirado en las tensiones entre los jefes franceses e indígenas. [3] Sin embargo, en 1899, estas escuelas públicas pasaron a llamarse Escuelas para hijos de jefes, o Les Ecoles des Fils des Chefs, como parte de un esfuerzo francés más amplio para cooperar con la población indígena. [17] [3] Joseph Gallieni y Louis Archinard son dos personas que contribuyeron a la apertura de algunas de estas primeras escuelas durante el siglo XIX. [17]

Durante el dominio francés de Malí, la educación se orientó principalmente hacia la enseñanza de información sobre Francia y el idioma francés en lugar de las tradiciones malienses. [3] Muchos historiadores y autores, como Charles Cutter, creen que los malienses no gozaron de muchos derechos durante esta época y enfrentaron una crisis de identidad mientras se asimilaban a la cultura francesa. [3] [18] Para evitar esta crisis, los malienses confiaron en mantener las tradiciones orales. [18] Además, muchos malienses enviaron a sus hijos a escuelas tradicionales e islámicas en un esfuerzo por que sus hijos aprendieran más sobre las tradiciones culturales de Malí. [3] Por ejemplo, en Kayes, después de la apertura de las primeras escuelas francesas, los grupos étnicos decidieron enviar a sus hijos a madrazas y medersas, o escuelas islámicas privadas que se imparten en árabe. [19] [7] Estos grupos étnicos, junto con muchos otros en Mali, creían que enviar niños a estas escuelas era una forma de hacer una declaración política y religiosa, adquirir méritos y crear una identidad afro-musulmana. [7] En 1906, los franceses crearon su propia versión de las medersas en Djenné y Tombuctú en lengua francesa, lo que permitió a los estudiantes buscar oportunidades profesionales dentro de la administración francesa. [7]

Los franceses aprobaron la Ordenanza del 24 de noviembre de 1903 que desarrolló la educación pública en el África Occidental Francesa. [17] Esto fue parte de un esfuerzo mayor para crear más escuelas primarias y regionales. [3] Específicamente, esta ordenanza desarrolló más escuelas en varios niveles que van desde el nivel local hasta el nivel secundario y vocacional. [17] Además, permitió a los profesores adquirir más experiencia y formación. [17] Aunque esta ordenanza hizo grandes avances en el desarrollo de las escuelas, historiadores como Boniface Obichere la citan como discriminatoria contra los nativos de Malí. [17]

Educación posterior a la independencia Editar

En 1960, Malí se independizó de Francia. [3] Inmediatamente después de la independencia, sólo una décima parte de los malienses sabían leer y escribir y asistían a la escuela. [3] Durante este período de tiempo, muchos políticos de África Occidental formaron parte del Rassemblement Démocratique Africain, que era un grupo político que se centró parcialmente en el desarrollo de oportunidades educativas y de alfabetización en las comunidades de África Occidental. [17] De hecho, Modibo Keïta, el primer presidente de Mali, utilizó esta ideología junto con su filosofía socialista para desarrollar un nuevo sistema educativo en 1962. [17] Este sistema se centró en dotar a los malienses de habilidades para contribuir a la economía de la nación. [17] Además, dividió la estructura educativa en dos ministerios. [17] Específicamente, el Ministerio de Educación Básica, Juventud y Deportes supervisó la educación primaria, mientras que el Ministerio de Educación Superior y Secundaria e Investigación Científica se encargó de la educación superior al nivel primario. [17]

En 1980, cuando Malí fue gobernado bajo una dictadura, los porcentajes de alfabetización cayeron a niveles tan bajos como el 13,6% para los adultos y el 25,6% para los malienses de 15 a 24 años. [3] Sin embargo, un movimiento democrático en la década de 1990 resultó en que el gobierno hiciera la educación más accesible mediante la reducción de las tasas educativas y el aumento de la producción de escuelas. [20] En 2000, esos mismos porcentajes de alfabetización aumentaron en un 26,7% y un 38,7%, respectivamente. [3] Además, en 1999, el gobierno reconoció oficialmente la educación bilingüe ya que la mayoría de las familias hablaban uno de los cincuenta y seis idiomas locales. [8] No obstante, como se menciona en un estudio de Jaimie Bleck sobre la capital maliense de Bamako, esta liberalización de la educación provocó el hacinamiento de los estudiantes en las escuelas públicas y un cambio de interés hacia las escuelas privadas. [20] Por ejemplo, algunas secciones de Bamako tienen más del 40% de estudiantes matriculados en escuelas privadas. [19]

Ciclos de escolarización Editar

En la década de 1980, la educación de Malí siguió un sistema de dos ciclos. [13] [2] Durante el primer ciclo, los niños comenzaron su educación en las escuelas públicas a la edad de siete u ocho años durante seis años antes de tomar el examen CEP, que significa el Certificado de Fin d'Etudes du Premier Cycle en francés. [13] [2] Muchos estudiantes encontraron el primer ciclo difícil, especialmente porque las escuelas de Malí estaban principalmente en francés, un idioma con el que la mayoría de los malienses, especialmente aquellos que vivían en áreas rurales, tenían poca experiencia. [13] Así, 1 de cada 6 estudiantes del primer ciclo optó por asistir a las medersas. [13] Posteriormente, un estudiante que completó con éxito el segundo ciclo de educación, que duró tres años, fue elegible para tomar un examen conocido como Diploma en Educación Básica, también conocido como Diplôme d'Etudes Fondamentales. [13] [2] Después de 2012, el gobierno fusionó estos dos ciclos en uno, pero los exámenes que los estudiantes tenían que tomar se mantuvieron en su lugar. [2] Actualmente, los niños de 7 a 15 años deben asistir a la escuela, que dura de octubre a junio todos los años. [21]

Jerarquía gubernamental Editar

El sistema educativo de Malí tiene una gobernanza jerárquica. [2] El Ministro Nacional y la Dirección Nacional de Educación Superior están a cargo de las universidades públicas a nivel nacional. [2] La AE, que significa Académies d'Enseignment, dirige la educación regional. [2] Adicionalmente, el CAP o Centros de Actividades Pedagógicas es responsable de la educación local. [2]

La educación pública está dirigida y financiada desde el nivel nacional. [22] El Ministerio tiene dos funcionarios de nivel ministerial, cada uno de los cuales encabeza un brazo independiente del Ministerio. [22] El Ministre de L'Education de Base, de L'Alphabétisation et des Langues Nationales (Ministerio de Educación Básica, Alfabetización e Idiomas Nacionales) es responsable de la educación primaria, los programas de alfabetización fuera de las escuelas y la promoción y estandarización de los "idiomas nacionales", como el bambara y el tamcheq, distintos del idioma oficial, el francés. [22]

los Ministre des Enseignements Secondaire, supérieur et de la Recherche scientifique (Ministerio de Educación Secundaria y Superior e Investigación Científica) se encarga de las escuelas secundarias gubernamentales, la universidad y una variedad de centros de formación profesional, técnica y de investigación. [22] En 2008, el Ministro de Educación Básica, Alfabetización e Idiomas Nacionales era Sidibe Aminata Diallo [23] y el Ministro de Educación Secundaria y Superior, e Investigación Científica era Amadou Toure. [24]

Escuelas primarias Editar

Escuelas públicas Editar

El Ministerio de Educación de Malí es responsable de la gestión de las escuelas públicas de Malí. [6] Estas escuelas seculares se imparten en el idioma nacional de Malí, el francés. [6] Muchos padres a menudo pagan cuotas para que sus hijos asistan a estas escuelas, lo que se considera ilegal según la ley de Malí. [6] Además, los maestros están sujetos a un contrato que limita la cantidad de capacitación a la que tienen acceso estos educadores antes de comenzar a enseñar. [6] Esto conduce a frecuentes huelgas, escasez de profesores y clases de gran tamaño. [6]

Escuelas privadas Editar

En comparación con sus contrapartes públicas, las escuelas privadas en Malí son más caras de asistir. [6] Estos recursos adicionales junto con cantidades más bajas de regulación gubernamental permiten que estas instituciones tengan clases más pequeñas. [6] También les dan a los estudiantes conexiones laborales después de la graduación. [6] Al igual que las escuelas públicas, estas instituciones también se enseñan principalmente en francés, pero pueden ser seculares o religiosas. [6] Malí tiene muchas escuelas cristianas privadas que son administradas principalmente por la iglesia católica. [6]

Educación secundaria, terciaria y superior Editar

Después de la educación primaria, los estudiantes pueden optar por continuar su trayectoria académica y asistir a un liceo durante tres años que finaliza con un examen llamado Bachillerato. [2] Tener un buen desempeño en este examen puede ayudar a los estudiantes a obtener la admisión a las universidades para la educación superior y terciaria. [2] Por el contrario, los estudiantes de Malí pueden seguir un camino más preprofesional y optar por asistir a un programa de formación profesional de dos o cuatro años para obtener un título técnico. [2] En general, estas formas de educación se han diversificado durante los últimos años, ya que muchos estudiantes ahora saben leer y escribir en muchos idiomas diferentes, como el árabe, el francés, el latín y los idiomas locales. [7] Un ejemplo famoso de una escuela secundaria de larga duración en Malí es la Escuela Técnica Superior. [3]

El aumento del gasto en educación primaria, especialmente para los niños de las zonas rurales y las niñas, ha tenido el efecto involuntario de sobrecargar el sistema de enseñanza secundaria. Al final de su educación primaria, los estudiantes pueden tomar los exámenes de ingreso para la admisión a la escuela secundaria, llamados el diplôme d’étude fondamentale (Diploma de Estudios Fundamentales o DEF). En 2008, más de 80.000 estudiantes aprobaron estos exámenes, pero a alrededor de 17.000, el 40% de los cuales eran niñas, se les negó la colocación en las escuelas secundarias. [25] Si bien el gobierno sostiene que estos estudiantes deberían ser colocados en lugares limitados según su diploma, su edad y su historial académico, algunos malienses sostienen que la discriminación de género juega un papel en la negación de lugares a las niñas. [25]

Los estudiantes de Malí no pagan tasas de matrícula, pero la educación secundaria privada y la formación profesional pueden cobrar 600 dólares al año (en Bamako, 2008), en una nación donde el salario anual promedio era de 500 dólares en 2007 según el Banco Mundial. [25]

Una de las universidades más antiguas del mundo, Sankore en Tombuctú, se remonta al siglo XV.

La Universidad de Bamako, también conocida como la Universidad de Mali, es una agregación de la década de 1990 de instituciones más antiguas de educación superior en el área de Bamako. Su campus principal se encuentra en el barrio de Badalabougou.

La Universidad incluye cinco facultades y dos institutos:

  • La facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología (Faculté des sciences et técnicas o FAST),
  • La facultad de Medicina (Faculté de Médecine, de Pharmacie et d’Odento-Stamologie o FMPOS),
  • La facultad de Humanidades, Artes y Ciencias Sociales (Faculté des Lettres, Langues, Arts et Sciences Humaines o FLASH),
  • La facultad de Derecho y Servicio Público (Faculté des Sciences Juridiques et Politiques FSJP),
  • La Facultad de Ciencias de la Economía y la Gestión ("Faculté des Sciences Economiques et de Gestion" o FSEG,
  • El Instituto de Gestión ("Institut Universitaire de Management" o IUG),
  • El Instituto Superior de Formación e Investigación Aplicada ("Institut Supérieur de Formation et de Recherche Appliquée" o ISFRA). [26]

Educación islámica Editar

La educación islámica comenzó en la religión de Malí ya en el siglo XVI, cuando Tombuctú tenía 150 escuelas coránicas. [19] Muchos malienses, especialmente los que residen en Bamako, Sikasso y Kayes, asisten a las madrazas, que son escuelas islámicas privadas que se enseñan principalmente en árabe para la educación primaria. [6] Estas instituciones también enseñan francés, como exige la ley de Malí, y reciben ayuda internacional de regiones como Estados Unidos y Europa. [6] De manera similar, muchos malienses asisten a escuelas coránicas informales que enseñan a los estudiantes a leer árabe mediante el uso de idiomas locales. [6] Estas escuelas no reciben ayuda del gobierno. [6] Una medersa también ayuda a los estudiantes a aprender a recitar el Corán, pero además les brinda educación sobre temas occidentales, historia islámica, europea y francesa, matemáticas y árabe. [7]

Educación comunitaria Editar

En la década de 1990, la USAID, o Agencia de los Estados Unidos para el Desarrollo Internacional, creó un programa de escuelas comunitarias principalmente para la educación primaria en Mali. [6] Estas instituciones no tienen fines de lucro y son supervisadas principalmente por líderes comunitarios. [6] Las escuelas comunitarias se imparten en francés o en idiomas locales y ofrecen a los estudiantes cursos técnicos, vocacionales y de alfabetización. [20] Estas escuelas son generalmente flexibles y se adaptan a las necesidades de una comunidad. [6] Los padres generalmente pagan para que sus hijos asistan a estas instituciones a través de recursos comunitarios. [6] Sin embargo, las escuelas comunitarias han aumentado la tasa de educación primaria en lugares que son conocidos por tener bajas tasas de matrícula, como Sikasso. [19]

Educación para sordos Editar

Debido a la gran población de la comunidad de sordos en Malí, el gobierno de Malí creó iniciativas para abordar las oportunidades educativas para los estudiantes sordos. [8] En 1993, Bala Keita creó la EDA o École pour les défients auditifs en Bamako, que ofrece educación especial para sordos malienses. [8] En las últimas tres décadas, Sikasso, Koutiala, Ségou y Douentza vieron un aumento en las escuelas para sordos debido a figuras como Dramane Diabaté y Dominique Pinsonneault. [8] Un ejemplo de escuela para sordos es Jigiya Kalanso. [8]

Educación técnica y profesional Editar

After primary school, Malians can optionally attend vocational and technical schools which provide pre-professional certificates and education. [17] A few examples of vocational and technical schools include the National School for Engineers, Lycée Technique, Lycée Agricole de Katibougou, the Agricultural Apprenticeship Centers at M'Pessoba and Samanko, and the School for Veterinarians in Bamako. [17] [3]

Literacy initiatives in Mali occur in three stages: learning to read and write, post literacy, and integrating literacy into life activities. [10] According to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, or UNESCO, 35.47% of Malians that are 15 years or older are able to read and write as of 2018. [9] Specifically, the 2018 literacy rates for Malians ages 15-24 and 65 years and older were 50.13% and 19.08%, respectively. [9] For each of these three groups, the percentage of the male population that was literate was higher than the percentage of the female population that was literate. [9] Although the government implemented literacy programs immediately after Mali gained independence, these initiatives became much more prominent during the democratic movements of the 1990s. [5] Literacy programs currently have a large presence in rural communities. [10]

Post literacy Edit

Post literacy is defined as the process of helping neo-literates utilize their new knowledge and skills to develop the community and environment. [11] Post literacy efforts in Mali revolve around the idea of functional literacy which focuses on making practical applications of new literacy skills. [11] Functional literacy allows Malians to use their skills for community and national development. [10] Institutions such as the National Directorate of Functional Literacy and Applied Linguistics have been major proponents of providing adequate avenues for Malian neo-literates to practice their new skills. [11] For example, in one specific campaign for neo-literates in the 1990s, the number of neo-literates doubled to 60,282 in a four year span. [11]

A few examples of resources the National Directorate of Functional Literacy and Applied Linguistics, or DNAFLA, distributes are newspapers, educational booklets, paperbacks, and educational radio broadcasts and films. [11] The DNAFLA diversified their education after beginning the Further Education for Neo-literates program in 1977 which allowed local Malians to develop action plans for post-literacy education. [11] Two examples of trainings that the DNAFLA now offers are education in agriculture and health care. [11] Additionally, many post literacy institutions stress the importance of neo-literates using their skills to make a community impact. [11]

Integrated literacy Edit

Integrated literacy involves pairing literacy efforts with economic development. [12] Mali took part in UNESCO's Experimental World Literacy Program from 1965 to 1975 which involved integrated literacy programs. [12] This was part of a larger effort to incorporate educational reform into government policy. [12] This initiative transformed classrooms into a source of learning about the various economic spheres of Mali and also allowed students to pursue their entrepreneurial goals. [12] According to a study about integrated literacy in rural Mali, developments in integrated literacy for Bambara speakers led to economic growth in Mali. [12]

Amadou Sanogo, the leader of the 2012 coup d'état, citied the Malian education system as one of the reasons for his dissatisfaction with the Malian government. [7] Examples of problems with this education system include differences in vocabulary, an inability to access education, gender differences, and inefficiencies in education. [20] [13] [2] [27] [4] [28] [29] A few causes of these problems are geographic location, food and disease, and the poor quality of teaching. [8] [16] [15]

Language barriers Edit

When Mali became independent from France, only 7% of Malians were literate in French. [19] A study by J.R. Hough revealed that the French language is a barrier to education in Mali since many people have not been exposed to this language, and most Malians speak local languages. [8] [13] Neo-literates often have a difficult time utilizing their new skills since most publications and resources are in French. [10] Although Mali's first President, Modibo Keita, tried to utilize local languages, the government was still predominantly run in French. [19]

Access and regional differences Edit

With gross primary enrollment and gross higher education enrollment increasing by factors of 2.75 and 16.7 respectively in two decades, Mali faces a severe shortage of teachers. [2] In addition to logistical issues, political issues have negatively affected educational enrollment rates. [27] Specifically following the Crisis of 2012, over half a million citizens were displaced from their primary locations of education. [27] Additionally, this led to an increase in food prices which further decreased the amount of money parents had to send their children to school. [29] Similarly, many parents cannot afford school prices due to high school fees or the contributions required by community schools. [1]

Geographic location is often cited as a cause of low enrollment rates. [1] In 2009, although Bamako, Mali's capital, had a 90% primary enrollment rate, this percentage was much lower in rural areas of Mali, where 7 in 10 Malians live. [1] About 7 in 100 primary students live over 5 kilometers from their institution of education. [1] Additionally, 1 in 12 schools have zero classrooms or just one classroom, and many of these classrooms suffer from poor infrastructure. [1] A study about food insecure Malian villages revealed that a fifth of schools in these areas are outside. [27]

Food and nutrition Edit

The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations considers Mali a low income food deficit country. [27] In 2005, the World Food Programme classified 2 in 5 Malians as being food insecure or susceptible to food insecurity. [27] According to a 2013 study by Masset and Gelli which surveyed food insecure villages, food insecurity leads to fewer educational opportunities. [27] Food insecurity decreases interest in obtaining education and puts more of a focus on labor. [27] Consequently, these villages had lower attendance rates than the rest of the country. [27] 40% of children who were old enough to attend primary school actually enrolled in primary school, which is about 20% lower than the national average. [27] Additionally, a lack of proper nutrition can be detrimental to a child's brain formation. [15] When children do not get proper nutrition, their physical and cognitive development suffers. [15] This leads to lower levels of participation in educational systems and low levels of performance for those who do participate. [15]

Disability and disease Edit

According to the World Health Organization, approximately 2 million Malians are considered disabled. [16] As of 2000, there were 200,000 people who were deaf in Mali. [8] A study by researcher and author Victoria Nyst revealed that meningitis and other diseases are main contributors to deafness, especially because Mali is a part of the African meningitis belt. [8] Most deaf Malians do not have access to formal education in sign language. [8] This is because there are no sign language classes for those who aren't deaf, leading to untrained teachers, interpreters, and parents. [8] This propagates a system in which the deaf population has less access to information about government initiatives such as major health campaigns. [8] In order to address this, the government has unsuccessfully tried to incorporate deaf students into hearing schools. [8] As an alternative, many deaf Malians are sent to other countries such as France and Russia. [8]

Malaria is also an issue which affects educational development. [15] In a 2010 study about the effects of malaria on the village of Diankabou, researchers found that malaria was responsible for the majority of deaths of children under 5 years old and over a third of all visits to health clinics. [15] Additionally, they found that malaria during pregnancy can negatively affect the development of a child. [15] Once a child is born, malaria can lead to speech delay and mental retardation for children under 5. [15] Thus, this disease is the main cause of students not attending class. [15] This study also revealed that malaria negatively influences educational and cognitive development. [15]

Gender disparities Edit

Net enrollment rates and literacy rates are generally lower for girls compared to boys in Mali. [30] This disparity can be further magnified by geographic differences. [4] A 2012 survey discovered that 84.9% of women in rural areas who were surveyed had not formally completed any form of education. [31] Only 2.2% of all women surveyed, including those who lived in urban areas, had completed primary school. [31] A study about pastoralist schools in the Gao region of Northeast Mali revealed that the primary enrollment rate for girls was less than 60% which was approximately 20% lower than the primary enrollment rate of boys in that region. [4] Whereas both boys and girls in Gao suffer from living many kilometers away from school in communities with frequent droughts, girls must face gender bias in schooling and societal pressures to marry early and earn a high dowry through pursuing higher education. [4] The government perpetuated this system by forcing mainly pastoralist boys to go to boarding school. [4]

According to a study about rural Mali by Laurel Puchner, women often have a difficult time incorporating new literacy skills outside of the classroom, especially because they face discrimination in the areas of society that utilize neo-literate skills. [28] [29] Additionally, many people, such as the researchers in this study, argue that students do not actually become literate through these programs due to inefficiencies in the implementation of literacy education. [28] [29] For example, in the four villages where the Puchner study took place, many Malians were illiterate mainly because they endured poor learning conditions and had few print resources to become educated. [29]

Inefficiencies Edit

Enrollment, completion, and dropout rates Edit

In 2017, the primary net enrollment rate in Mali was 61%. [30] In terms of gender, 65% of boys and 58% of girls were enrolled in primary education. [30] However, the completion rate of primary education was 50% during the 2017 school year. [30] In the 1980s, these numbers were far more inefficient. [13] In fact, 1 in 7 students dropped out within the first three years of primary education, and 20,000 students were not able to successfully graduate to their second year of education. [13] These repetitions were not limited to a student's first year. [13] Considering students who dropout, the average length of time to complete a 9 year cycle of Malian education was 23 years. [13] These inconsistent, lengthy cycles led to lower enrollment rates. [13] For example, at one point, 1 in 10 Timbuktu children were attending school. [13] Despite these facts, Mali still faces a shortage of teachers. [13] In 2008, the trained teacher to student ratio was 1 to 105. [1] These issues can lead to illiteracy for adult populations. [30] In 2015, the adult literacy rate was 33%. [30] A 2013 study about Malian education revealed that citizens with lower education levels are more likely to turn to agriculture and migration rather than continuing to pursue education. [32]

Quality of teaching Edit

In terms of the quality of education that Malian teachers have received, 1 in 3 primary education teachers have not completed their second cycle of education. [1] There have been initiatives such the Alternative Teaching Staff Recruitment Strategy or SARPE which tools teachers with 90 days of training, which many teachers cite as being too short in length. [1] Additionally, strikes related to wages are not uncommon. [1] For example, there was a strike by secondary teachers during the 2006 to 2007 school year related to the fact that teachers are paid on a monthly contractual basis with low wages. [1]

Policies post independence Edit

1962 Educational Reform Law Edit

This law was passed right after Mali gained independence in an effort to improve the quality of Malian education and the accessibility of schooling. [2] This was part of a larger effort to decolonize Mali post independence and shift the French-focused curriculum towards incorporating more information about Africa. [2] This law introduced the Functional Literacy Program which provided education for adults who could not read or write in their local languages. [2] Additionally, this reform created the cyclical educational structure and specifically split Malian education into a 5 year cycle followed by a 4 year cycle. [17]

Other policies Edit

The government continued to make changes to the Malian educational system in the 1960s. [17] In 1964, they created the National Pedagogic Institute made up of Malian, French, American, and UNESCO officials whose main purpose was to improve the Malian curriculum and textbooks. [17] However, this institute suffered from logistical inefficiencies and often didn't meet their original goals. [17] In addition to curriculum reform, the government initiated efforts to expand the number of schools. [17] By 1967, although there were 53 private schools, public schools were better able to compete with private education. [17] Towards the end of this decade, the government developed the existing structure of Malian education. [17] In 1968, the Ministry of National Education became a joint institution with the Ministry of Youth and Sports. [17] In 1969, the school cycle lengths were modified yet again to 6 years and 3 years, respectively. [17] Finally, in 1970, the government implemented the DEF, or Diploma d'Etudes Fondamental, which served as merit based exam to determine which students were able to transition to secondary and vocational schools following primary education. [17]

Policies post-democracy Edit

Policies in the 1990s Edit

In 1992, the Malian government officially declared access to education as a constitutional right. [5] These views were part of a larger democratic movement that took place in Mali in the 1990s. [20] Consequently, seven years later, on December 29th, 1999, the Mali National Parliament passed the Education Act which created more educational opportunities for Malians. [2] During this decade, the government focused on non traditional education for adults and literacy. [5] Additionally, the government made more efforts to recruit and train teachers by giving primary educators two to four years of training. [17] [1]

Ten Year Education Development Program Edit

In 1998, the government passed the Ten Year Educational Development Plan as a way to make education universal, higher in quality, and more accessible. [2] [1] Additionally, this plan was meant to reduce gender and geographic-based inequalities in education. [27] Also known as PRODEC or the Programme Décennal de Dévelopment de l'Education, this program made major developments in popularizing bilingual education and improving the quality of textbooks. [1] The government actually met their GER, or gross enrollment ration, goal by reaching a primary gross enrollment rate of 80% in 2008. [2] [1]

Policies in the 2000s Edit

The 2000s were defined by further improvements in Malian education, especially in terms of flexibility. [4] In addition to continuing to popularize bilingual education, the government allowed schools to complement core classes with community based classes. [4] After a 2002 study by Oxfam and the Institute for Popular Education revealed that educational resources are often difficult to access and convey gender biases, Oxfam developed a program to reduce educational gender discrimination and provide aid to low income families. [4] Researchers also advocated for more funding for adult education after discovering some of the inefficiencies in literacy programs for non traditional students. [5] Additionally, in 2009, the government implemented a nutritional program for underserved communities across Mali. [27]

Animatrices Edit

Animatrices are local women and community leaders that make an effort to reduce gender bias in education. [4] These individuals generally have experience with social work and teach parents about the importance of equality in Malian education. [4] Additionally, they ensure that girls are regularly attending class and encourage any girls that drop out of school to return to class. [4] In a study about Gao, where animatrices are prominent, researchers found that the number of girls that attended schools nearly doubled in a three year span. [4]

Foreign aid Edit

Since 1987, Child Aid USA has been an organization that works to implement literacy programs for Malians and improve community education. [29] Similarly, USAID, is an organization that provides aid to 9 regions of Mali to improve early literacy programs and community education. [16] One major program that this organization developed was the Selective Integrated Reading Activity that helped over 300,000 Malians learn how to read. [16] Most recently, in 2018, USAID provided over 18 million US dollars in aid to Mali. [16] One other US based organization that helped Mali was the United States Department of Agriculture which promoted the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program in Mali. [14] This three- part program provided more training to teachers which improved the reading abilities of students. [14] France and the World Bank are two other major donors to Mali. [1]

Disability policies Edit

The Equitable Access to Education Program, Education Emergency Support Activity, and the Persons with Disabilities Project have each improved the quality of education for disabled Malians. [16] In terms of education for the deaf, the French version of American Sign Language, or ASL, and Malian Sign Language, which is also known as LSM, are the two main forms of sign language in Mali. [8] Although LSM utilizes local languages, which Malians are more familiar with, the United States supports ASL initiatives in Mali through working with the Peace Corps. [8] In contrast, the World Federation of the Deaf is one of the major organizations that advocates for LSM. [8] In 2007, the Endangered Language Documentation Program of the Hans Rausing Endangered Language Project created Project LSM which researched LSM and released their findings to the National Library in Mali. [8]

SAFE Edit

In order to improve agricultural education, the Sasakawa-Global 2000 Institute created SAFE, or the Sasakawa Africa Fund for Extension Education. [33] This fund was incorporated into Mali in 2002 and has given Malians opportunities to obtain either a two year diploma or a Bachelor of Science in Agricultural Extension and Rural Development. [33] One major component of this program is the Supervised Enterprise Project which provides shadowing and internship opportunities for students and a chance for Malians to develop their agricultural opportunities through collaborating with farmer mentors and local universities. [33] For example, this program incorporates hundreds of hours of coursework and approximately 7 months of research. [33] Since 2002, over 150 professionals have graduated from this program or worked on a project, and 50 Malians received diplomas in 2007. [33]


Economy and Environment

25. Mali’s most frequently exported natural resources include gold, phosphates, salt, limestone, kaolin, uranium, and granite. Mali depends on agricultural exports and gold mining for its main revenue.

26. Gold is mined in Mali’s southern region and generates the third highest total gold production in all of Africa, after South Africa and Ghana.

27. Mali’s economic stability fluctuates with agricultural commodity and gold prices. Cotton, the country’s annual harvest, and gold exports represent 80 percent of Mali’s earnings.

28. Thirty four percent of the land is used as agricultural land, with 5.6 percent in arable land and 28.4 percent in permanent pastureland. Forests occupy ten percent of Mali.

29. Most of Mali’s economic activity is conducted in the area of the country the Niger River irrigates. The other 65 percent of the country is desert or semi desert land.

30. Almost half of Mali’s population lives below the international poverty line. Mali is one of the 25 poorest countries in the world. The average annual salary of a Malian is $1,500 (U.S. dollars) annually.

31. Mali’s environment concerns include deforestation, soil erosion, desertification and an inadequate potable water supply.

32. Natural environmental hazards/challenges include recurring droughts, infrequent flooding of the Niger River, and dust-laden hot haze that is common during the dry seasons.


Can Mali Escape Its Past?

This week, after weeks of protests over terrorism and corruption, Mali’s military arrested the country’s prime minister, Boubou Cissé, and president, Ibrahim Boubacar Keita, who soon officially resigned his post. In the days since, powers around the world, including France, the United Nations, United States, and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), have demanded the reinstatement of the elected government—even as many Malians have cheered its demise. The international community’s calls are unlikely to go heeded, and Mali seems set for more unrest in the days ahead.

To help explain how the country—once considered a key example of stability and democracy in the region—got here and what may follow, we’ve collected our best reads from the last few years.

This week, after weeks of protests over terrorism and corruption, Mali’s military arrested the country’s prime minister, Boubou Cissé, and president, Ibrahim Boubacar Keita, who soon officially resigned his post. In the days since, powers around the world, including France, the United Nations, United States, and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), have demanded the reinstatement of the elected government—even as many Malians have cheered its demise. The international community’s calls are unlikely to go heeded, and Mali seems set for more unrest in the days ahead.

To help explain how the country—once considered a key example of stability and democracy in the region—got here and what may follow, we’ve collected our best reads from the last few years.

The timing of the military’s action against Keita and Cissé may have come as a surprise, but the fact that the armed forces stepped in probably should not have been. In fact, it follows “a similar coup in 2012 that originated from the army base in the town of Kati, where Keita and Cissé are currently being held,” wrote the journalist Philip Obaji Jr. That coup “toppled then-President Amadou Toumani Touré and contributed to the fall of northern Mali to Islamist militants.” After a resolution at the U.N. Security Council that followed an official request for help from Mali’s interim government, France intervened in an operation that helped lead in 2015 to a peace agreement between the government and northern armed groups.

The French presence has continued in some form until today, yet so has the violence. As the terrorism expert James Blake wrote in 2019, Mali is populated by many different groups, all with complicated relationships. Their grievances are “long-standing,” he explained, “often relating to disputes over land and water.” And whereas disagreements used to be quickly resolved, “containing the fighting is getting harder and harder to do,” particularly because jihadi groups became adept at exploiting local concerns. In March last year, that violence seemed to enter a new phase when “100 armed men dressed as ethnic Dogon hunters stormed the village of Ogossagou in central Mali,” Blake explained. After killing more than 160 ethnic Fulani civilians, many homes were burned the ground. At the time, it was “the latest and most deadly episode in a campaign of systematic violence against Fulani herders, who are being forced to flee their land,” and looked likely to set off counterattacks.

A month after the strike on Ogossagou, the prime minister and the government resigned. As Leiden University’s Liesbeth van der Heide reported at the time, the chain of events was a sign that little had improved since the start of the French intervention. There had been scant progress on disarming rebel groups, she explained, and the “decentralization policy” enacted after the 2012-2015 war that “was meant to provide communities in the north with more autonomy in the hope that inclusion in governance would prevent local groups from taking up arms” had been ineffective and mismanaged. “In response, armed groups that control large swaths of territories in northern and central Mali are carving out a political and administrative role by force.” Such problems, she argued, wouldn’t go away just because one government replaced another.

She was correct. Throughout 2019, Mali remained on edge. In December, reported La política exterior’s Robbie Gramer, the Trump administration was “preparing to create a new special envoy position and task force to deal with security threats in the Sahel region of Africa, reflecting a growing alarm in Washington about the rise of extremist groups in West Africa, including ones affiliated with the Islamic State,” a measure that came as extremist groups carried out “increasingly deadly attacks in Mali, Niger, and Burkina Faso and spread their reach further south.” One reason for the uptick in violence, explained the experts Jacob Zenn and Colin P. Clarke, was that an apparent truce between al Qaeda and the Islamic State in the region had fallen apart, leading to a rise in scuffles between local affiliates.

By the summer, and in the middle of the COVID-19 pandemic, some kind of reckoning seemed unavoidable. “Too many Malians—particularly the young, who make up a third of the country’s workforce—have no work. Unemployment among young people has reached almost 15 percent, up from 7 percent eight years ago before Keita took office,” Obaji noted. “The country’s poverty rate has increased from 45 percent in 2013 to almost 50 percent today. More Malians were displaced by insecurity in 2019 than at any time in the country’s history. The health care system is in shambles, and the threat of violence has left millions of kids without schools. Despite French military intervention, violent extremist groups—one of which kidnapped a perpetual runner-up in presidential elections—are still very active in parts of the country.”

With the Keita administration now out, observers are wary of what may follow. “Insisting that the Keita government be replaced by other politicians,” Obaji wrote, “will only mean bringing in another group of people who will likely use power for their personal benefit, thereby maintaining the status quo and leaving much of the country discontented.” Yet a military regime seems like a bad option, too. “France, the United States, the African Union, and ECOWAS must act to force the military to stand down,” urged Vicki J. Huddleston, who was U.S. ambassador to Mali between 2002 and 2005, and Witney Schneidman, a former U.S. deputy assistant secretary of state for African affairs. “Once calm is restored and mediation efforts led by ECOWAS are resumed, negotiations must result in the selection of an interim president and prime minister that are acceptable to Keita’s party and the June 5 Movement.” Even more than that, “France and the United States should lead the international community in providing a comprehensive economic recovery plan similar to the Marshall Plan for postwar Europe that covers Mauritania, Niger, Mali, and Burkina Faso.” Without sustained investment along those lines, the problems that have plagued Mali for years may only intensify.

Kathryn Salam is a deputy editor at La política exterior.


French intervention

2013 January - Islamist fighters capture the central town of Konna and plan to march on the capital. President Traore asks France for help. French troops rapidly capture Gao and Timbuktu and at the end of the month enter Kidal, the last major rebel-held town. European countries pledge to help retrain the Malian army.

2013 April - France begins withdrawal of troops. A regional African force helps the Malian army provide security.

2013 May - An international conference pledges $4bn to help rebuild Mali.

2013 June - Government signs peace deal with Tuareg nationalist rebels to pave way for elections. Rebels agree to hand over northern town of Kidal that they captured after French troops forced out Islamists in January.

2013 July-August - Ibrahim Boubacar Keita wins presidential elections, defeating Moussa Mara.

France formally hands over responsibility for security in the north to the Minusma UN force.

2013 September - President Keita appoint banking specialist Oumar Tatam Ly prime minister.

2013 September-November - Government relations with Tuareg separatists in the north steadily worsen, with occasional clashes.

2013 December - Parliamentary elections give President Keita's RPM 115 out of 147 seats.

France announces 60% reduction in troops deployed in Mali to 1,000 by March 2014.

2014 April - President Keita appoints former rival Moussa Mara prime minister in a bid to curb instability in the north.

2014 May - Fragile truce with Tuareg MNLA separatists breaks down in north. Separatists seize control of Kidal city and the town of Menaka, Agelhok, Anefis and Tessalit.

2014 September - Government, separatists begin new round of talks in Algeria to try end conflict over northern Mali, or Azawad as the secessionists call it.

Separatist MNLA opens an 'ɺzawad embassy'' in the Netherlands.

2014 October - Nine UN peacekeepers killed in the north-east - the deadliest attack so far on its mission in Mali.

2015 January - Mali's health minister says the country is free of the Ebola virus, after 42 days without a new case of the disease since October.

2015 April - Upsurge in fighting as Coordination of Azawad Movements northern rebels clash with UN peacekeepers in Timbuktu and seize town of Lere, try to recapture Menaka from pro-government militia.

2015 May - French troops kill leading al-Qaeda commanders Amada Ag Hama and Ibrahim Ag Inawalen in northern raid. Both were suspected of kidnapping and killing French citizens.

A peace accord to end the conflict in the north of Mali is signed by the government and several militia and rebel factions.

2015 June - Government and ethnic Tuareg rebels sign peace deal aimed at ending decades of conflict. The government gives the Tuareg more regional autonomy and drops arrest warrants for their leaders.

2015 July - Craftsmen in Mali working for the United Nations rebuild the world-renowned mausoleums in Timbuktu which were destroyed by Islamists in 2012.

2015 August - Seventeen people killed in attack by suspected Islamist militants on a hotel in the central Malian town of Sevare

2015 November - Islamist gunmen attack the luxury Radisson Blu hotel in the capital Bamako, killing 22.

2016 August - Several attacks on foreign forces. More than 100 peacekeepers have died since the UN mission's deployment in Mali in 2013, making it one of the deadliest places to serve for the UN.

A Malian jihadist is found guilty of ransacking the fabled desert city of Timbuktu. He expressed regret in the unprecedented trial before the International Criminal Court.

2017 January - At least 37 people are killed by a car bomb at a military camp in Gao housing government troops and former rebels brought together as part of a peace agreement.

2017 February - Malian soldiers and rival militia groups including Tuareg separatists take part in a joint patrol, a key part of a peace agreement reached in 2015.

2017 April - President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita announces a new government, appointing close ally Abdoulaye Idrissa Maiga as prime minister.

2017 June - Al-Qaeda-aligned group Nusrat al-Islam wal Muslimeen claims responsibility for an attack on an hotel popular with Westerners east of Bamako, killing two civilians.

2018 January - Some 14 soldiers are killed in a suspected Islamist attack on a military base at Soumpi. Elsewhere, 26 civilians die after their vehicle hits a landmine.

2018 July - President Keita is re-elected as jihadist violence continues to plague the north and east of the country.

2020 August - President Keita is overthrown in a military coup after months of protests demanding his resignation.


Mali Military Coup: Why the World Is Watching

Instability in the country is likely to ripple across West Africa and beyond.

The military in Mali arrested the country’s president and prime minister on Tuesday in a coup staged after weeks of destabilizing protests over a disputed election, government corruption and a violent Islamist insurgency that has lasted for eight years.

The streets of Bamako, the capital, exploded with both jubilation and gunfire after President Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta and his prime minister, Boubou Cissé, were detained along with other government officials. Around midnight, the president announced on state TV that he was resigning.

The effects of the turmoil could spill beyond the borders of Mali, a country whose strategic location has geopolitical implications for West Africa, the Sahel, the broader Arab world, the European Union and the United States.

French forces and American advisers show the West’s keen interest

France has remained deeply involved in the affairs of Mali, its former colony, decades after the country gained independence.

For the French forces battling Islamists in the region, Mali is part of what some call France’s “Forever War” in the Sahel, the far-stretching land beneath the Sahara.

The United States, too, has military advisers in Mali, and American officials have a keen interest in a stable Malian government whose interests align with the West.

”Mali’s internal governance and security challenges are driving instability across the Sahel,” said Kyle Murphy, a former senior analyst with the Defense Intelligence Agency who is now with the Center for Strategic and International Studies.

“This matters to the United States,” Mr. Murphy added, “because instability in the region allows violent extremists to prey on populations and advance their objectives, and displaces millions of civilians.”

Extremists driven from power, but not defeated

After a previous military coup in 2012, Islamist rebels, some with ties to Al Qaeda, took advantage of the disarray to seize control of large areas of the country’s north, including the ancient city of Timbuktu.

Under their brutal rule, Malians in those areas under jihadist control were forced to follow a strict religious code or risk severe punishment. Women were forced into marriage, and historical sites were demolished.

The rebels lost control of their territories after French forces intervened to help the Malian military drive them out. But armed groups continue to terrorize civilians in the countryside, and the violence has metastasized across borders into the neighboring countries of Burkina Faso and Niger.

More than 10,000 West Africans have died, over a million have fled their homes and military forces from West Africa and France have suffered many losses.

“That is the major concern here,” said Chiedo Nwankwor, a researcher and lecturer at Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies. “These various jihadist movements in Africa do not bode well for any Western government.”

A success story turned sour

In the years following its independence from France in 1960, Mali was viewed as having achieved a good track record in democratic government.

In 1996, a New York Times correspondent on a reporting trip to Mali made note of the pervasive poverty afflicting the citizenry but said the West African country nevertheless had become “one of this continent’s most vibrant democracies.”

But Mali, once cited as a democratic role model in the region, has lurched from one crisis to another since the 2012 coup that overthrew President Amadou Touré a month before elections were to be held.

The factors behind that coup, in part a consequence of the Arab Spring, underscore Mali’s position connecting North Africa with the rest of the continent. After the fall of Col. Muammar el-Qaddafi in Libya in 2011, hundreds of heavily armed Malian rebels who had fought for the Libyan leader returned home and attacked northern towns, creating the chaos that preceded the military takeover.

Another leader falls

Mr. Keïta, the president arrested in Tuesday’s coup, won office in a landslide in 2013. But whatever hopes Mr. Keita raised when he took 78 percent of the vote, his star, and his genuine popularity, gradually faded.

He vowed “zero tolerance” for corruption, but Malians came to view him with mistrust.

Mr. Keita won re-election in 2018, when he ran for a second term, but only after being forced into a runoff. In recent weeks, protesters complained that those in charge had not done enough to address the corruption and bloodshed that have plagued the country. And they accused the president of stealing a parliamentary election in March and installing his own candidates.

After security forces shot and killed at least 11 protesters earlier this summer, the demands for reform only grew.

A team of regional mediators arrived in the capital, Bamako, to try to ease the unrest.


Democracy

1992 - Alpha Konare wins multiparty elections to become Mali's first democratically-elected president.

1995 - Peace agreement with Tuareg tribes leads to return of thousands of refugees.

1999 - Former President Moussa Traore sentenced to death on corruption charges, but has his sentence commuted to life imprisonment by President Konare.

1999 October - Several people killed in fighting in the north between members of the Kunta tribe and an Arab community over local disputes.

2000 February - Konare appoints former International Monetary Fund official Mande Sidibe prime minister.

2001 December - Manantali dam in southwest produces its first megawatt of hydro-electricity, 13 years after it was completed.


Clima

Mali lies within the intertropical zone and has a hot, dry climate, with the sun near its zenith throughout most of the year. In general, there are two distinct seasons, dry and wet. The dry season, which lasts from November to June, is marked by low humidity and high temperatures and is influenced by the alize and harmattan winds. los alize blows from the northeast from November to January and causes a relatively cool spell, with temperatures averaging 77 °F (25 °C). From March to June the harmattan, a dry, hot wind that blows from the east out of the Sahara, sweeps the soil into dusty whirlwinds and is accompanied by daytime temperatures of about 104 to 113 °F (40 to 45 °C).

During the rainy season, from June to October, the monsoon wind blows from the southwest. Preceded by large black clouds, the heavy rainstorms often include gusty winds and much lightning and thunder. Temperatures are somewhat lower in August, when most of the rainfall occurs.

The country can be divided into three climatic zones—the Sudanic, the Sahelian, and the desert zones. Sudanic climate occurs in about one-third of the country, from the southern border to latitude 15° N. It is characterized by an annual rainfall of 20 to 55 inches (510 to 1,400 mm) and average temperatures of 75 to 86 °F (24 to 30 °C). The Sahel, or the area bordering the Sahara, receives between 8 and 20 inches (200 and 510 mm) of rain per year and has average temperatures between 73 and 97 °F (23 and 36 °C). In the desert (Sahara), temperatures during the day range from 117 to nearly 140 °F (47 to 60 °C), while at night the temperature drops to 39 to 41 °F (4 to 5 °C).


Ver el vídeo: Imperios Africanos: El Imperio de Malí (Julio 2022).


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